Abbreviations

and Conventions

Compass directions: N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW + standard intermediates. Note, however, when used as an adjective (e.g. northern Aust., north-eastern coast and so on ) the style is lowercase with a full period: n., ne., e., se., s., sw., w., nw.

Units: Standard SI units and their recommended abbreviations are followed throughout the text. Those used are listed below.

Statistical arrangement: Throughout, simple statistics are presented in the form: MEAN (STANDARD DEVIATION; RANGE; SAMPLESIZE) e.g. 285 g (5.23; 276–298; 14). By presenting the data in this way, if any one figure is missing from within the brackets it is obvious what it is. If only range is available, it is presented in brackets, e.g. 253 g (276-298). If only standard deviation is available it is presented as MEAN±STANDARD DEVIATION, e.g. 253 ±5.23
g. If only the sample size is available it is presented as MEAN (n= … ), e.g. 253 g (n=14).

In the sections on Measurements and Weights, the last column of the tables indicates significance of the t-test of the sample means:
ns no significant difference
* means are significantly different at 0.05
** means are significantly different at 0.01

GENERAL and OTHER ABBREVIATIONS

General and Other Abbreviations are combined here. Abbreviations used in a specific section have this added to the definition, eg. [Food].

AbbreviationMeaning
% freq.                                    % frequency [Food]
% no.% number [Food]
% vol.% volume [Food]
% wt.% weight [Food]
(ne)‘no equivalent’ in reference to colour matches with Smyth Color Guide (see Plumages in  Treatment and Presentation) [Plumages]
°degrees
Aautumn [Food]
A’asiaAustralasia
A’asianAustralasian
ACTAustralian Capital Territory
ad.adult [Food]
ads.adults [Food]
Apr.April
Arch.Archipelago
aslabove sea level
Aug.August
Aust.Australia(n)
av.average
BATHBanders Aiding the Handbook, a project established to collect data on the external morphology of Aust. Birds for HANZAB especially biometric and moult data
BMRBasal Metabolic Rate
C.Cape
c.circa
CISCommonwealth of Independent States (formerly partsof USSR)
CkCreek
cm2square centimetres
CPConservation Park
CSNClassified Summarised Notes (see Bird Reports)
Dec.December
Div.Division (e.g. Kimberley Div.)
excl.Excluding [Food]
Feb.February
fl.flowers [Food]
fru.fruit [Food]
ggram
GrpGroup
hhour(s)
hahectare
HSHomestead
HwyHighway
I.Island
imm.immature(s) [Food]
incl.including
indet.indeterminate [Food]
IsIslands
Isl.Islet(s)
Jan.January
JulyJuly
JuneJune
juv.juvenile [Food]
kgkilogram
kmkilometre
llitre
L.Lake
larv.larva, larvae [Food]
Ls.Lakes
lvsleaves [Food]
mmetre
m2square metres
Mar.March
MayMay
MIAMurrumbidgee Irrigation Area
minminute(s)
mlmillilitre
MtMount, mountain
MtsMountains
NINorth Island, NZ
no.number
Nov.November
NPNational Park
NRNature Reserve
NSWNew South Wales
NTNorthern Territory
NZNew Zealand
obs.observations [Food]
Oct.October
OEDOxford English Dictionary
p.page
p.a.per annum
Pen.Peninsula
Pl.Plate
PllPlates
PMSPrimary Moult Score [Plumages]
PNGPapua New Guinea
pppages
pptparts per thousand
Prom.Promontory
Pt(e)Point(e)
QldQueensland
R.River
Ra.Range
RasRanges
RdRoad
RsRivers
ssecond
SSpring [Food]
SASouth Australia
sdsseeds [Food]
SeptSeptember
SFState Forest
sh.shoots [Food]
SISouth Island, NZ
SPState Park
sp./sppspecies
StSaint
StnStation
Str.Strait
SuSummer [Food]
Sub.Submission (in reference to BARC, NSWORAC)
Tas.Tasmania
tr.trace [Food]
UKUnited Kingdom
unident.unidentified [Food]
USAUnited States of America
USSRUnited Soviet Solialist Republics
Vic.Victoria
WWinter [Food]
WAWestern Australia


MUSEUMS and OFFICIAL ORGANISATIONS

AbbreviationOrganisation
AAD Australian Antarctic Division
ABBBS                                              Australian Bird and Bat Banding Scheme
ABC Australian Bird Count (Birds Australia)
ABSA Australian Bird Study Association
AIM Auckland Institute and Museum, Auckland
AM Australian Museum, Sydney
AMNH American Museum Natural History, New York
ANARE Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition
ANCA Australian Nature Conservation Agency (formerly Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service [ANPWS])
ANPWS Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service
ANWC Australian National Wildlife Collection CSIRO, Canberra
AOU American Ornithologists Union
ARI Arthur Rylah Institute, Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands, Heidelberg, Vic.
AUST. NRS RAOU Nest Record Scheme
AWMM Auckland War Memorial Museum, Auckland
AWSG Australasian Wader Studies Group
BARC Birds Australia Records Committee (formerly RAOU Records Appraisal Committee OSNZ[RAC])
BAS British Antarctic survey
BBL Bird Banding Lab., Fish Wildl. Serv. US, Dept Int., USA
BMNH British Museum Natural History
BMRC Bird Migr. Res. Center, Yamashina Inst. Orn., Japan
BOU British Ornithologists Union
BTO British Trust for Ornithology
CALM Department of Conservation and Land Management (WA)
CAMBA China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement [XXX link]
CCNT Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory
CEMAVE Centro Estudos Migr. Aves, Brazil
CFL Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands (Vic.)
CM Canterbury Museum, Christchurch
CNR Conservation & Natural Resources (Vic.)(formerly Department of Conservation and Environment [DCE])
CRBPO Centre Rech. Biol. Popul. Ois., Natn. Mus. Hist. nat., France
CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Aust.)
DCE Department of Conservation and Environment(Vic.) (now Department of Conservation &Natural Resources)
DOC Department of Conservation, Wellington (NZ)
DSE Department of Sustainability and Environment (Vic.) (formerly Department of Natural Resources and Environment [NRE] and , before that, Conservation and Natural Resources [CNR])
DSIR Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (NZ)
HLW H.L. White Collection (housed in MV)
IAC Inst. Antarct. Chileno, Chile
ICBP International Council for Bird Preservation (now Birdlife International)
JAMBA Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement
KOREA Korean Banding Scheme
MAGNT Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin (formerly Northern Territory Museum [NTM])
MAPS Migr. Animal Pathol. Survey (McClure 1974)
MM Macleay Museum, University of Sydney
MV Museum of Victoria, Melbourne (formerly National Museum of Victoria)
NMNH National Museum of Natural History,Leiden, Germany
NMNZ National Museum of New Zealand, Wellington
NPIAW National Photographic Index of Australian Wildlife
NRE Department of Natural Resources and Environment (Vic.) (formerly Conservation & Natural Resources [CNR])
NRS Birds Australia Nest Record Scheme
NSW NPWS NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service
NSWORAC NSW Ornithological Records Appraisal Committee
NTM Northern Territory Museum, Darwin (now MAGNT)
NZ NRS OSNZ Nest Record Scheme
NZNBS NZ National Banding Scheme, NZDOC, NZ
NZWSG New Zealand Wader Studies Group
OM Otago Museum, Dunedin, formerly Otago University
OSNZ Ornithological Society of New Zealand
PWH Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage (Tas.)
QDEH Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage
QM Queensland Museum, Brisbane
QNPWS Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service
QVM Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, Launceston
QWSG Queensland Wader Studies Group
RAC RAOU Records Appraisal Committee (now BARC)
RAC RAOU Records Appraisal Committee
RAOU Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union (now Birds Australia
RBC OSNZ Rare Birds Commitee
RFBPS Royal Forest and Bird Protection Society (NZ)
RMNH Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie,Leiden (now National Museum of NaturalHistory)
RNZAF Royal New Zealand Air Force
RSPB Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (UK)
RUSS Russian banding Scheme
SA NPWS SA National Parks and Wildlife Service
SABRU S. Afr. Bird Ringing Unit, Univ. Cape Town, Rep. S. Africa
SAM South Australian Museum, Adelaide
SAW S.A. White collection (housed in SAM)
SOPAN Stajca Orn. Polska Akad. Nauk, Poland
TMAG Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart
VH Vogelwarte Hiddensee, East Germany
VWSG Victorian Wader Study Group
WAM Western Australian Museum, Perth
WWF World Wide Fund for Nature
ZMA Zoological Museum, Amsterdam
ZMM Zoological Museum, Moscow


SIMPLIFIED REFERENCES

Some references appear so regularly throughout the text that we refer to them simply as indicated below without date and without including them in lists of references. Personal communications, personal observations and unpublished results are indicated simply by the observer’s initials and name in brackets (A.N. Other)

The list below combines information from Standard References, Additional Standard References, and Bird Reports. Additional Standard References apply to a particular volume or group (volume or volume and group shown in square brackets after the reference). For most bird reports, the abbreviated reference is followed by a year which is the year the report covered not the year published; for Classified Summary Notes and Tasmanian Bird reports, the volume number of the journal in which the report is published is given instead.

AbbreviationReference
ABAP 2020                                                                     Garnett ST, Baker GB (Eds) (2021) The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2020. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.
ACT AtlasTaylor, M., & Canberra Orn. Grp. 1992. Birds of the Australian Capital Territory-An Atlas. Canberra Ornithologists Grp & National Capital Planning Authority, Canberra.
ACT Bird Rep.Published in Canberra Bird Notes (Canberra Orn. Grp)
Aust. Atlas Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly. 1984. The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne: MUP. Condon, H.T.1975.
Aust. Atlas 1Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly. 1984. The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
Aust. Atlas 2Barrett, G., A. Silcocks, S. Barry, R. Cunningham & R. Poulter. 2003. The New Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne.
Aust. CL Condon, H.T. 1975. Checklist of the Birds of Australia. Part 1. Non—Passerines. RAOU, Melbourne.
Aust. CL 1926RAOU Checklist Committee. 1926. Official Checklist of the Birds of Australia. Second edn. H.J. Green Melbourne
Aust. RD Reader’s Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds.1976. Sydney:Reader’s Digest. AND
Schodde, R., & S.C. Tidemann (Eds.) 1986 Reader’s Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds. Revised edn. Reader’s Digest, Sydney
Aust. Seabird AtlasReid, T., M.A. Hindell, D.W. Eades, & M. Newman. In prep. Atlas of Seabirds of Southeast Australia.
Barker & Vestjens Barker, RD., & W.J.M. Vestjens. No date [c. & Vestjens 1989]. The Food of Australian Birds. 1. Non-passerines. CSIRO, Canberra; and
Barker, RD., & W.J.M. Vestjens. No date [c. 1991 ]. The Food of Australian Birds. 2. Passerines. CSIRO, Canberra.
BLI 2022HBW-BirdLife Checklist Version 7.0 (December 2022)
BolesBoles, W.E. 1988. The Robins & Flycatchers of Australia. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
BWBirds of the World (2022). Edited by S. M. Billerman, B. K. Keeney, P. G. Rodewald, and T. S. Schulenberg. Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://birdsoftheworld.org/bow/home
Brown & AmadonBrown, L., & D. Amadon. 1968. Eagles, Hawks and Falcons of the World. Country Life, Feltham, Middlesex. [Falconiformes]
BWP Cramp, S., & K.E.L. Simmons. 1977, 1980, 1983, 1985, 1988, 1992, 1993, 1994. The Handbook of the Birds of Europe, Middle East and North Africa — The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol 1-9. OUP, London.
Campbell Campbell, A.J. 1900. Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds. Privately, Sheffield.
ClelandCleland, J.B., J.H. Maiden, W.W. Froggatt , E.W. Ferguson, & C T. Musson. 1918. Sci. Bull. Dept. Agric. NSW 15: 1- 112.
CromeCrome, F.J.H., & J. Shields. 1992. Parrots and Pigeons of Australia. Angus & Robertson, Sydney. [Vol. 3]
Crome & ShieldsSee Crome [Vol4]
CSN Classified Summarised Notes, published in Notornis (OSNZ), which, for its first few volumes was published as NZ Bird Notes. Also note that a few CSN (or their equivalent) were published in Reports and Bulletins of the OSNZ (Rep. Bull. OSNZ) which preceded NZ Bird Notes [Bird Report]
Cupper  &  CupperCupper, J., & L. Cupper. 1981. Hawks In Focus. Jaclin Enterprises, Mildura. [Falconiformes]
DABSchodde, R., & I.J. Mason. 1999 Directory of Australian Birds: Passerines CSIRO Publ., Melbourne
FABBarker, R.D. & W.J.M. Vestjens. Undated [c. 1989] The Food of Australian Birds. 1. Non-passerines. CSIRO, Canberra. AND
Barker, R.D. & W.J.M. Vestjens. Undated [c. 1991] The Food of Australian Birds. 2. Passerines. CSIRO, Canberra.
FleayFleay, D. 1968. Nightwatchmen of Bush and Plain. Jacaranda Press, Brisbane. [Vol. 4]
FleggFlegg, J., & S. Madge, 1995. Reader’s Digest Photographic Field Guide. Birds of Australia. Reader’s Digest, Sydney. [Bare Parts Vol. 6]
ForshawForshaw, J., & W.T. Cooper. 1981. Australian Parrots. Second (revised) edn. Lansdowne, Melbourne [Vol. 4]
FrithFrith, H.J. 1982. Pigeons and Doves of Australia. Rigby, Melbourne.
GoodwinGoodwin, D. 1970. Pigeons and Doves of the World. Trustees Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Lond. [Vol. 3]
GouldGould, J. 1865. Handbook to the Birds of Australia. Privately, London. (Facsimile edn. 1972. Landsdowne, Melbourne.)
HallHall, B.P. (Ed.) 1974 Birds of the Harold Hall Australian Expeditions, 1962-70. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London.
HASB Serventy, D.L., V.N. Serventy & J. Warham. 1971. The Handbook of Australian Sea-birds. Sydney: Reed.
HollandsHollands, D. 1984. Eagles, Hawks and Falcons of Australia. Nelson, Melbourne.
and
Hollands, D. 1991. Birds of the Night. Reed, Sydney. [Vol. 4]
LaneLane, B.A. 1987. Shorebirds in Australia. Reed, Sydney. [Vol. 3]
Lea & GrayLea, A. H., & J.T. Gray. 1935-36 Emu 35:63-99, 145-78, 251-80, 335-47.
LindsayLindsey, T.R. 1992. Encyclopedia of Australian Animals. Birds. Angus & Robertson, Sydney. [Bare parts Vol. 6]
LongmoreLongmore, W. (Ed.) 1991. Honeyeaters and their Allies of Australia. Angus & Robertson, Sydney. [Vol. 6]
MathewsMathews, G.M. 1910-27. Birds of Australia. Witherby, London. (All volumes and supplements.)
MorcombeMorcombe, M. 1990. The Great Australian Birdfinder. Weldon Publishing, Sydney. [Bare Parts Vol. 6]
Murphy Murphy, R.C. 1936. Oceanic Birds of South America. New York: AMNH.
North North, A.J. 1901-14. Nests and Eggs of Birds found Breeding in Australia and Tasmania. Spec. Cat. 1, Aust. Mus., Sydney.
NPIAWNational Photographic Index of Australian Wildlife. 1982. Wrens and Warblers of Australia.
NSW Bird ReportPublished in Australian Birds (formerly Birds) (NSW Field Orn. Club)
NZ AtlasBull, P.C., P.D. Gage & C.J.R. Robertson. 1985. The Atlas of Bird Distribution in New Zealand. Wellington; OSNZ.
NZCL Ornithological Society of New Zealand. 1953, 1970. Annotated Checklist of New Zealand Birds. Reed, Wellington. Including the 1980 supplement to the Checklist: Kinsky, F.C. 1980. Notornis 27 (Supplement): 1-23.
AND
1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica. Third edn. Random Century, Aukland.
NZCL 1953 Ornithological Society of New Zealand (C.A. Fleming, Convenor, Checklist Committee). 1953. Annotated Checklist of New Zealand Birds. Reed, Wellington.
NZCL 1970 Ornithological Society of New Zealand (F.C. Kinsky, Convenor, Checklist Committee).. 1970. Annotated Checklist of New Zealand Birds. Reed, Wellington.
NZCL 2022Checklist Committee (OSNZ). 2022. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand (5th edition).
Ornithological Society of New Zealand Occasional Publication No. 1.
Wellington: Ornithological Society of New Zealand.
NZRD Robertson, C.J.R. (Ed.) 1985 Reader’s Digest Complete Book of New Zealand Birds. Sydney: Reader’s Digest
NZTCS 2021NEW ZEALAND THREAT CLASSIFICATION System 2021 https://www.doc.govt.nz/about-us/science-publications/conservation-publications/nz-threat-classification-system/ (accessed 15/2/2023)
OEDThe Oxford English Dictionary. Clarendon Press, Oxford. Includes abridgements, such as The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary.
Oliver Oliver, W.R.B. 1955. New Zealand Birds. Wellington: Reed.(reprinted 1970, also including earlier editions of this work: 1930)
Olsen, PD., & J. Olsen. In press. Proc. A’asian Raptor Assoc. 10th Anniversary Conf. , Canberra 1989.
These proceedings have now been published and the correct citation is:
Olsen, P D. (Ed.) 1993. Australian Raptor Studies-Proceedings of the Tenth Anniversary Conference of the Australasian Raptor Association, Canberra, Sept. 21-22, 1989. A’asian Raptor Assoc., RAOU, Melbourne. [Vol. 2]
Peters Mayr, E., & G.W. Cottrell. 1979. Checklist of Birds of the World. Vol.1. Second edition. Cambridge: Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology.
and
Peters, J.L. 1934. Checklist of Birds of the World Volume 2. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass.
and
Peters, J.L. 1937 Check-list of Birds of the World.
Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass.
and
— 1940. Check-list of Birds of the World. 4. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass.
and
— 1945. Check-list of Birds of the World. 5. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass.
and
Mayr, E., & R.A. Paynter Jr. (Eds) 1964. Checklist of Birds of the World. 10. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [Vol. 6]
and
Paynter Jr, R.A. (Ed.) 1967. Check-list of Birds of the World. 12. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [Vol. 6]
and
Mayr, E., & G.W Cottrell. (Eds) 1986. Checklist of Birds of the World. 11. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. [Vol. 6]
Qld Bird Rep.Published in Sunbird (Qld Orn. Soc.)
SA Bird rep.Published in South Australia Ornithologist (S. Aust. Orn. Assoc.)
Schodde & MasonSchodde, R., & I.J. Mason. 1980. Nocturnal Birds of Australia. Lansdowne, Melbourne. (Note: Published 1981, not 1980 as dated, which has taxonomic implications.)[Vol. 4]
Serventy & WhittellServenty, D.L., & H.M. Whittell. 1976. Birds of Western Australia. Univ. West. Aust. Press, Perth
StepnellStepnell, K., & W. Boles. Undated. Australia’s Beautiful Birds and Their Young. Australian Consolidated Press, Sydney.
StrahanStrahan, R. (Ed.) 1994. Cuckoos, Nightbirds and Kingfishers of Australia. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
Storr 7Storr, G.M. 1977. Birds of the Northern Territory. Spec. Publs West Aust. Mus. 7
Storr 11 — 1980. Birds of the Kimberley Division, Western Australia. Spec. Publs West Aust. Mus. 11
Storr 16— 1984. Birds of the Pilbara Region, Western Australia. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 16
Storr 19— 1984. , Revised List of Queensland birds. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 19
Storr 21— 1985. Birds of the Gascoyne region, Western Australia. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 21
Storr 22— 1985. Birds of the Mid-eastern Interior of Western Australia. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 22
Storr 24—, R.E. Johnstone & P. Griffin. 1986. Birds of the Houtman Abrolhos, Western Australia. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 24
Storr 26—, 1986. Birds of the South-eastern Interior of Western Australia. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 26
Storr 27—, 1987. Birds of the Eucla Division of Western Australia. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 27
Storr 28—, & R.E. Johnstone. 1988. Birds of the Swan Coastal Plain. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 28
Storr 35— 1991. Birds of the South-western Division of Western Australia. Rec. West Aust. Mus. Suppl. 35
Tas. Bird Rep.Published in Tasmanian Bird Report (Birds Tas. [formerly Bird Obs. Assoc. Tas.])
TrounsonTrounson, D., & M. Trounson. 1994. Australian Birds. National Book Dist. & Pub!. , Sydney. [Bare Parts Vol. 6]
Vic. Atlas Emison, W.B., C.M. Beardsell, F.I. Norman, R.H. Loyn & S.C. Bennett.1987. Atlas of Victorian Birds. Melbourne: Dept. Cons. Forests Lands and RAOU.
WA Bird Rep.Published by WA Group of the RAOU
WadeWade, P. (Ed) 1975. Every Australian Bird Illustrated. Rigby, Adelaide. [Bare Parts Vol. 6]
WLABBirdlife Australia. Working List of Australian Birds. Version included in reference eg WLAB 4.1

STANDARD SOURCES FOR PHOTOS USED AND REFERRED TO IN BARE PARTS

  • Aust. RD (see Standard References above for full citation) .
  • Boles (see Standard Refe rences above for full citation).
  • Flegg, J., & S. Madge, 1995. Reader’s Digest Photographic Field Guide. Birds of Australia. Reader’s Digest, Sydney.
  • Lindsey, T.R. 1992. Encyclopedia of Australian Animals. Birds. Angus & Robertson, Sydney.
  • Longmore (see Standard References above for full citation).
  • Morcombe, M. 1990. The Great Australian Birdfinder. Weldon Publishing, Sydney.
  • NPIAW (see Standard References above for full citation).
  • Stepnell, K., & W. Boles. Undated. Australia’s BeautifulBirds and Their Young. Australian Consolidated Press, Sydney.
  • Trounson, D., & M. Trounson. 1994. Australian Birds. National Book Dist. & Pub!. , Sydney.
  • Wade, P. (Ed) 1975. Every Australian Bird Illustrated. Rigby, Adelaide.

Recommended Citation:
BirdLife Australia (2023). Abbreviations. [Text before updates sourced from: Marchant, S. et al (eds) 1990-2006 Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds.Volume 1 to 7.] Birdlife Australia. Birdlife Australia. Last modified 2023-12-12 01:05. Source: https://hanzab.birdlife.org.au/understanding-information/abbreviations/ Accessed: July 16, 2024 Time Zone: +10:00